Impact of ICT on women empowerment in South Asia


  • Md Shamimul Islam ASA University Bangladesh



Digital divide, ICT4D, SAARC, Women empowerment


Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been increasingly promoted as a key solution for comprehensive development, poverty eradication and the empowerment of historically disadvantaged groups, such as women and minorities in the South Asia. ICT is a significant area of concern for women empowerment and growth of a country. This paper studied the status of ICT and women empowerment in South Asian countries. Based on empirical research this paper found that ICT has a positive impact on women empowerment.

Author Biography

  • Md Shamimul Islam, ASA University Bangladesh
    Faculty of Business


Amin, S., & Lloyd, C. B. (2002). Women's lives and rapid fertility decline: Some lessons from Bangladesh and Egypt. Population Research and Policy Review, 21(4), 275-317.

Angeles, R. (2005). RFID technologies: supply-chain applications and implementation issues. Information systems management, 22(1), 51-65.

Annan, A. P. (2005). GPR methods for hydrogeological studies. In Hydrogeophysics (pp. 185-213). Springer Netherlands.

Archibald, S., Bond, W. J., Stock, W. D., & Fairbanks, D. H. K. (2005). Shaping the landscape: fire-grazer interactions in an African savanna. Ecological applications, 15(1), 96-109.

Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992). Convergence. Journal of political Economy, 223-251.

Bhatnagar, S., & Schware, R. (2000). Information and communication technology in development. New Delhi/ Thousand Oaks, CA/London: Sage Publications.

Boserup, E. (1970). Women's Role in Economic Development. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Bresnahan, T. F., & Trajtenberg, M. (1995). General purpose technologies ‘Engines of growth’? Journal of econometrics, 65(1), 83-108.

Clark, Roger; Thomas W Ramsbey and Emily S Adler. (1995). "Culture, Gender, and Labor Force Participation: A Cross National Study." Gender and Society, 5(1), pp. 47 - 66.

De Fontenay, A. B., & Beltran, F. (2008). Inequality and economic growth: Should we be concerned by the digital divide. International Telecommunications Society, 17.

Dickey, D. A., & Fuller, W. A. (1979). Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of the American statistical association, 74(366a), 427-431.

Drucker, P. (2001). Quoted in Arun, S. and Arun, T. (2002) “ICTs, Gender and Development: Women in Software Production in Kerala,” Journal of International Development 14(1), 39–50, p. 40.

Durand, J D. (1975). The Labor Force in Economic Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Education, and Family." The American Economic Review, 96(2), pp. 1 - 21.

Duflo, E. (2012), Women Empowerment and Economic Development, Journal of Economic Literature, pp. 1051–1079.

Elson, D. (1995). Gender awareness in modeling structural adjustment. World Development, 23(11), 1851-1868.

Fletschner, D. (2008). Women's Access to Credit: Does it matter for household efficiency?. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(3), 669-683.

Friedman, E.J. (2005). The reality of virtual reality: The Internet and gender equality advocacy. Latin American Politics and Society, 47(3), 1–34.

Fuwa, H., Ebine, M., Bourdelais, A. J., Baden, D. G., & Sasaki, M. (2006). Total synthesis, structure revision, and absolute configuration of (-)-brevenal. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(51), 16989-16999.

Galor, O., & Weil, D. N. (2000). Population, technology, and growth: From Malthusian stagnation to the demographic transition and beyond. American economic review, 806-828.

Goldin, C. (1994). The U-shaped female labor force function in economic development and economic history (No. w4707). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hafkin, N. (2000). Convergence of concepts: Gender and ICTs in Africa. Gender and the information revolution in Africa, 1-18.

Hafkin, N., & Huyer, S. (Eds.) (2006). Cinderella orcyberella? Empowering women in the knowledge society. Bloomªeld, CT: Kumarian Press.

Hafkin, N., & Taggert, N. (2001). Gender, technology, and developing countries: An analytic study. Washington, DC: USAID Ofªce of Women in Development.

Heeks, R. (2004). ICT initiatives, women and work in developing countries: Reinforcing or changing gender inequalities in South India. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No. 20/2004.Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved June 26, 2007, from,

Huyer, S. (2002). Information and communication technologies: A priority for women. Gender, Technology and Development, 6(1), 85–100.

Huyer, S., & Mitter, S. (2003). ICTs, globalisation and poverty reduction: Gender dimensions of the knowledge society. Retrieved November 2, 2006, from

International Telecommunication Union (ITU). (2002a). Khmer Internet: Cambodia case study. Retrieved June 17, 007, from

International Telecommunication Union (ITU).(2002b). Internet from the horn of Africa: Ethiopia case study. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from

Islam, M. S., & Mamun, A. (2013). Digital divide and its impact on economic growth in SAARC Countries. International Journal of Applied Research in Business Administration and Economics , 2 (2), 15-26

Johansen, S. (1995). Likelihood-based inference in cointegrated vector autoregressive models. OUP Catalogue.

Karake-Shalhoub, Z., & Qasimi, A. (2007). The Diffusion of E-commerce in Developing Economies: A Resource Based Approach. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kelkar, G., & Nathan, D. (2002). Gender relations and technological change in Asia. Current Sociology,50(3), 427–441.

Laudon, K., Laudon, J. (2010) Management Information system, Pearson.

Lincove, J. A. (2008). Growth, girls' education, and female labor: A longitudinal analysis. The Journal of Developing Areas, 41(2), 45-68.

Levin, A., C.F. Lin and C.S.J. Chu, (2002). Unit root tests in panel data: Asymptotic and finite-sample properties. Journal of Econometrics, 108(1-24).

Mammen, K., & Paxson, C. (2000). Women's work and economic development. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 141-164.

Mankiw, N. G.,Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992). Capital mobility in neoclassical models of growth (No. w4206). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Mies, M., & Shiva, V. (1993). Ecofeminism. Zed Books.

Mitter, S. (2003). Part III: Globalisation and ICT: Employment opportunities for women. Retrieved June 21, 2007, from

Mitter, S., & Rowbotham, S. (1997). Women encounter technology: Changing patterns of employment in the third world (Vol. 1). Psychology Press.

Mitter, S., & Sen, A. (2000). Can Calcutta become another Bangalore? Looking for windows of opportunity in international telework. Economic and Political Weekly, 2263-2268.

Nath, V. (2001). Empowerment and governance through information and communication technologies:

Nath, V. (2006). “Empowerment of Women through ICT-enabled Networks: Towards the Optimum ICT-impact Model,” in N. Hafkin & S. Huyer (eds.), Cinderella or Cyberella: Empowering Women in the Knowledge Society, Bloomªeld, CT: Kumarian Press.

Nuss, S., & Majka, L. (1985). Economic Development and Education of the Female Population A Cross-National Investigation. Sociological Perspectives, 28(3), 361-384.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2001). Women and human development: The capabilities approach (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.

Patel, R., & Parmentier, M. J. C. (2005). The persistence of traditional gender roles in the information technology sector: A study of female engineers in India. Information Technologies and International Development, 2(3), 29-46.

Patil, D. A., Dhere, A. M., Pawar, C. B. (2009). ICT and Empowerment of Rural and Deprived Women in Asia, Asia‐Pacific Journal of Rural Development, pp. 1-22

Parpart, J. L., & Marchand, M. H. (1995). Exploding the canon: an introduction/conclusion.

Pesaran, M.H. and B. Pesaran, (1997). Microfit 4.0: Interactive econometric analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pesaran, M.H. and R. Smith, (1995). Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogenous panels. Journal of Econometrics, 68(79-113).

Pesaran, M.H., Y. Shin and R. Smith, (1999). Pooled mean group estimator of dynamic heterogeneous panels. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94: 621-634.

Phillips, P. C., & Hansen, B. E. (1990). Statistical inference in instrumental variables regression with I (1) processes. The Review of Economic Studies, 57(1), 99-125.

Rau, W., & Wazienski, R. (1999). Industrialization, female labor force participation, and the modern division of labor by sex. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 38(4), 504-521.

Sciadas, G. (2005). From the digital divide to digital opportunities.

Sen, A. (1992). Inequality reexamined. Oxford University Press.

Sen, A. (2000). Social exclusion: Concept, application, and scrutiny.

Sharma, C. (2004). ICTs for development. Case studies from India. Retrieved June 13, 2007, from

Sharma, U. (2003). Women empowerment through information technology. New Delhi: Author’s

Suresh, L. B. (2011). Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Women Empowerment in India, Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics Volume. 9, pp.17-23

Swamy, P. Conway, R. and LeBlanc, M. (1988a). The Stochastic Coefficients Approach to Econometric Modeling, Part I: A Critique of Fixed Coefficient Models. The Journal of Agricultural Economic Research, 40, 2-10.

Swamy, P. Conway, R. and LeBlanc, M. (1989). The Stochastic Coefficients Approach to Econometric Modeling, Part III: Estimation, Stability Testing and Prediction. The Journal of Agricultural Economic Research, 41, 4-20.

Swamy, P.A. and Arora, A.A. (1972). The Exact Finite Sample Properties of the Estimators of Coefficients in the Error Components Regression Models. Econometrica, 40, 261-275.

UNDP, (2001). World Bank, and WRI (2000). World resources.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2002). E-commerce and development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2003). E-commerce and development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2004). E-commerce and development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2005). E-commerce and Development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2006). E-commerce and development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

Women’s perspectives. International Information and Library Review, 33, 317–339.

World Bank. (2006). Engendering ICT Toolkit. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from

World Bank. (2007a). Gender, ICT and entrepreneurship. Engendering ICT toolkit. Retrieved June 23, 2007, from

World Bank. (2007b). ICT projects and policy. Engendering ICT toolkit. Retrieved June 23, 2007, from